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What causes the other: Stress cause strain or Strain cause stress ( Conjugated Polymers)

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 I am struggling in understanding a theorem related to a conjugated polymer which is based on the electro-chemo-mechanical working principle.

The basic idea of the actuator is constructed from three layers, the up and bottom are conductive and the medium layer is dielectric and when the voltage applied the ions migrates to fill the holes.

It is mentioned that the expansion is happening because of the migration of the ions and then the stress occurs.

I don't agree with it as what makes the ions migrate is the electrostatic force and then the strain occurs.

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Cyclical Nanoindentation Stress-Strain Measurement

The Stress-Strain curve obtained by Nanoindentation reveals the correlation of "Stress" and"Strain" of a given material under nano controlled loads. Unlike the traditional Tensile Testing method of obtaining Stress-Strain curve data, which gives data at a macro level, the Nanoindentation method provides vital Stress-Strain curve data at nano level scale without the large and intense machinery. The Stress-Strain curve of various materials will vary widely.

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