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Zaoyang Guo's picture

If you are talking about constitutive modelling of soft tissue, you can find several hyperelastic models for soft tissue on my website:

A good review is:

Humphrey, J.D., Continuum
biomechanics of soft biological tissues.
Proceedings of the Royal Society
of London Series a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 2003. 459(2029): p. 3-46

Hope that information helps. 



You papers are interesting. thanks.

MichelleLOyen's picture

Which tissue are you interested in?  The field is a bit fragmented by tissue type, at times.  And it depends on what you are trying to do.  I would probably be able to make more useful specific recommendations with more information.

 However, two additional and useful general resources are:

"Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics and Mechanobiology " (3rd ed.) which has lots of biological background as well as references to many "classic" studies in the field

"Tissue Mechanics " by Cowin and Doty.


Dear Dr.Oyen

Thanks for your reply. I am trying to find a subject on soft tissue to work on with my supervisor. I have a good back ground in solid mechanics and Composite materials. Unfortunately, I do not know to start from where. I read some papers and found that some of these materials assumed to be viscoelastic. BTW, I am interested in collagen as a soft tissue. However, Since I am novice in this field I do not know from what aspect I can work on this issue. I visited you page in Cambridge university. I found that you are expert in this field. I would be grateful if you guide me with your useful comments.

Best Regards,


MichelleLOyen's picture

Yes because of their hydrated states, soft tissues exhibit time-dependent mechanical behavior sometimes described as "viscoelastic" but in many cases a "poroelastic" framework is actually more appropriate.  In general, composite mechanics is a good background for studying tissues since they are inhomogeneous in general.  Continuum approaches have seen varying degrees of success in describing soft tissues, and recent attention has been on non-continuum aspects of soft tissue response including molecular and hierarchical modeling.

Part of the reason that the field is somewhat fragmented into groups by tissue type is that the microstructures of different soft tissues are quite different and therefore structure-properties interactions vary widely.  There are also some interesting questions regarding the reasons for studying biomechanics outside of general interest.  Articular cartilage is interesting for its role in arthritis.  Ligaments and tendons are often studied relating to sports injuries.  Bone is considered within the context of osteoporosis.  It's useful to keep in the back of your mind when considering your project that there probably should be some sort of concrete motivation for the problem you select and it can equally be some clinical/medical problem or some unanswered fundamental question about the class of collagenous materials.  Historically biomechanics research was driven on the clinical side, but more recently its rapid growth has been in more fundamental aspects.  

My best advice to you right now is to try to read a lot before you narrow down your focus.  There is a lot of structural biology to learn as well as a very large literature to consider.  It might be worth attending a meeting with symposia on biomechanics to see what others are doing in this subject and get a picture of the breadth of the topic in current research.  

Thank you very much Dr.Oyen for your comments. I will search more and will try to learn this issue. I will inform you about my research and I would be grateful to have your comments.



Temesgen Markos's picture

Hi Pouya,

If you are interested in cardiovascular mechanics, here are some related items

Blood Vessel Constitutive Models

Biomechanics of Soft Tissue in Cardiovasular Systems

Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics - this is a really good book


Dear  Temesgen

Thanks for the books and papers you introduced.I am wondering if you have a free version of this bookCardiovascular Solid Mechanics .


 Dear  Zaoyang

 I can not find this paper. Could you send me that?

Continuum biomechanics of soft biological tissues.

Thanks in advance.

Zaoyang Guo's picture

If you need a copy of the paper for research only, please send me an email. I can then email you the paper.

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