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Vyas Sanjay Safety and Reliability

SanjayVyas's picture

ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Practical) principle is one of the key techniques used to demonstrate application of Safety Management System on a Project /Worksite. It requires that hazards to personnel and the environment are identified, risks from these hazards are understood and that all reasonably practicable steps are taken to minimise the identified risks. It is similar to Best Available Technique which is applied to minimise environmental impacts from activity, product or services.


During Hazard Identification (HAZID) of the project or worksite, a list of hazards is identified and assessed using a Risk Assessment Matrix / Tolerability of Risk that is appropriate to the nature of activities and operations.


Tolerability of Risk can be best described by the Framework for Tolerability of Risk or Triangle for Tolerability of Risk. The upper zone of the triangle represents unacceptable region, the middle zone is known as tolerable or ALARP, and bottom zone represents broadly acceptable region.


The process of ALARP involves balancing between cost of measures that would be required to reduce the risk. In order to not to implement risk reduction measures, it is necessary to demonstrate that it would be grossly disproportionate to the benefits of risk reduction that would be achieved.


The following is a typical example of steps/ processes involved in an ALARP Review;

1.     Identify where ALARP must be demonstrated – Safety Management Reviews e.g. HAZID, HAZOPS etc. identifying hazards that fall within ALARP region on risk assessment matrix where demonstration of ALARP must be documented.

2.    Initiate ALARP – Define if hazard is generic or unit specific and prepare master list of ALARP sheets.

3.    Complete ALARP Assessment sheets- by a team or competent individual

4.    Review ALARP Assessment- by a team or competent individual to determine whether recommended risk mitigation to be applied or more detailed risk assessment study is required in relation to risk reduction measures.

5.    Submit ALARP sheets for management approval

6.    Implement ALARP mitigation measures

7.    Audit Application of ALARP

8.    Identify areas that require ALARP assessment and repeat step 2-7.

  References1.     Determining the Acceptability of Risk, HSE Briefing No. 36- May 2012 by The Institution of Engineering and technology 2.     HSE principles for Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) in support of ALARP decisions

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