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Direct 4D printing for double-curvature and multimodal morphing

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Most 4D printings utilize 1D structural deformation — bending and coiling to morph a flat shape by controlling only a single curvature, limiting the realization of complex 3D curved surfaces with two curvatures. We quantitatively analyze the morphing of a 2D plate into doubly curved surfaces on a direct 4D printing of a single isotropic material employing anisotropy of shape memory effect during the extrusion-based printing. We also construct an inverse-design algorithm to identify the printing conditions for a target 3D shape, such as the extruding direction per layer, the thickness ratio of the layers, the melting temperature, and the activation temperature.

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