Leonid G. Philippenko's blog
https://www.imechanica.org/blog/2590
en Active stretching shock wave as reactive engine
https://www.imechanica.org/node/20039
<div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p><span><span lang="EN" xml:lang="EN">The drivers for move of the rockets are designed in form that or the other version of the Laval nozzle.</span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">The reactive force of the traction which is created by such driver<span> </span><span> </span>can essentially be increased if in the outer section of nozzle is placed </span></span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span>an active shock wave of stretching <strong>(</strong></span><strong><span>depression): then </span></strong></span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span>the reactive force of the traction becomes </span></span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span><span> R=ζRL </span><span> </span>,<span> ζ=Uoff/US</span><span> </span>,</span></span></p>
<p><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span>where<span> US</span><span> </span>is the gas velocity on the front side of outer section of nozzle<span> </span>(e. g. in the gas flow running against on it) and<span> Uoff </span><span> </span>is gas velocity on the back side of it.</span></span></p>
<p><span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">The strict detailed description of this phenomenon had provided in the (renovated) author's monograph<span> </span>"</span><span>Сильные </span><span>ударные </span><span>волны </span><span>в </span><span>сплошных </span><span>телах</span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">" </span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">where it is shown that theoretically<span> ζ≤1+2/(γ-1)</span><span> </span>,<span> γ </span><span> </span>is the adiabat exponent of the gas. In English the information about it author, as usually, had sent on his site<span> </span></span></span><a href="https://clck.yandex.ru/redir/dv/*data=url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru%252Findex.html%26ts%3D1466781609%26uid%3D4466376161461589760&sign=169620c710ca06b8ef943c41166f837d&keyno=1" target="_blank"><strong><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</span></strong></a><span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US"><span><span> </span></span><span>, </span></span><span lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US">but the hosting<span> </span>administration decline to place it there by blockading<span> </span>the site.</span></span></p>
</div></div></div>Sat, 25 Jun 2016 14:33:21 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko20039 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/20039#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/20039What we measure on shock waves and how we interpret the results
https://www.imechanica.org/node/8595
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128">education</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
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<strong> What we measure on shock waves and how we interpret</strong>
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<strong> the results.</strong>
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In order to reasonably use the shock waves in the technique projects where they are the "technological tools" for achievement of the desirable results, is necessary in a first turn to know theirs true properties in the different real conditions. This properties are defined by the significations of theirs defining parameters: normal strain (the pressure) p, specific volume V, specific inner energy e, mass velocity U (or, in an arbitrary count system, v) and the velocity of wave relatively of in front matter D. On the base of three conservation laws - the mass, the impulse and the energy - it are determined three equations binding that five parameters; for to define all them, two from them must be measured experimentally, then others can be calculated from that equations. On the practice as a rule experimentally measured are the velocities D and U , especially for the condensed materials; the other parameters are calculated from system of equation of the conservation laws.
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In a contemporary generally accepted theory of shock waves as the system of equation of the conservation laws always is used the Rankine - Hugoniot (R. - H.) system, in which as the energy equation (in any materials, with any amplitudes, and so on) appears equation of Hugoniot. But the shock waves on which Hugoniot equation is fulfilled - that is the conservation law reality had the form of it - inevitable are the elastic waves. The reason is obvious: this equation is based on the hypothesis about of adiabatic shock deforming of the matter in wave. In any adiabatic processes
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(delta) e = (delta) w (1)
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so that the work of the deformations w find oneself as the function of state (dw is the full differential): such conditions are possible only if deforming of the material is elastic .
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In the nature and technics mostly meet the non adiabatic shock waves in which deformations of the matter are non elastic; just such "technological tools" in most cases are needful for the major contemporary technique projects. The radical theirs difference from the elastic waves consist in that the process of deforming of the matter in them is non adiabatic one: it is accompanied by the shock heat transference (SHT) (or "shock heat exchange") of the deformed on shock rupture material with its environment. The discovery of this phenomenon had been fixated in the article
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"Л.Г.Филиппенко. Следствия из уравнения Гюгонио. Сб. «Гидромеханика», вып. 36, Киев, «Наукова думка», 1977г." / The English text: L.G.Philippenko. The consequences from the Hugoniot equation. See at URL: <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a>
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, in which strict proves of the inevitability of existence the SHT and the properties of Hugoniot equation (where the SHT is absent) are detailed analysed ; the equation of the law of energy conservation have on the non adiabatic waves the form:
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(delta) e = Q + (delta) w (2)
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where Q is the specific measure of SHT.
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Naturally, the correlations among defining parameters in non adiabatic shock waves are essentially different from that in the adiabatic waves. None the less in contemporary scientific practice calculations of p, V and e on the essentially non adiabatic shock waves, corresponding to measured D and U, as yet execute by the R. - H. system. It leads to arise the "theoretic" errors additional to experimental ones; until the amplitude of the wave is enough little, these errors can also be little, but on the strong non adiabatic shock waves such "theoretic" errors can essentially exceed experimentally errors. The situation is analogical to that if the big plastic deformations were calculated by the formulae of elastic deforming.
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Still more false is generally accepted method of the measurement of the velocities D and U on the stationary shock waves. At the first turn, the non elastic, strong shock waves, which mostly meet - and have the most importance - in nature and technics, are as a rule the non stationary waves. The practical importance of science researches is defined by the practical importance of theirs results; here it means that for the practice the most interest have researches of the characteristics of not stationary shock waves. But on some systematic considerations in the contemporary scientific practice it is decided to restrict oneself by the stationary shock waves.
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The realization of stationary waves is a complicated problem. For to remain the stationary character the shock waves demand supporting of the strict outer conditions: it is enough any (already a little) accidental decreasing of the amplitude in order to the non adiabatic shock wave instantly had left of its shock character and had turned into continuous wave. The conditions in which are absent already the little accident fluctuations of the parameters, in a reality endure rarely (and in experiment scarcely are accessible). From the analysis of contemporary experimentally equipment used in this researches and by the second principle of thermodynamics it is clear: the significations of the velocities D and U which were measured out of the limits of elastic diapason, apparently, as a matter of fact, were measured on the strong (and enough steep ) non adiabatic continuous compressing waves. By theirs profiles such waves are similar to the shock waves; moreover, the velocities D and U with non adiabatic continuous waves also depend from theirs amplitude; this circumstance promote to confuse them with the true shock waves. But there exist the essentially differentiation among them: on continuous wave the velocity of its front is the (non adiabatic) sound velocity: D = c , (here c depends from the amplitude because of warming of the in front matter), while on the shock wave D > c. The experimentally discovered linear dependence among D and U is peculiar, most probably, for binding in continuous but not shock waves.
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But assume that the experimental equipments were so perfect that any accidental fluctuations in the wave parameters were excluded and the stationary shock waves could be realized. Behind the front of stationary shock wave the flow can be only the constant flow: p = Const., V = Const., and so on. From the second principle of thermodynamics from it leads: on the front of stationary shock wave the viscosity effects (as and other dissipative processes) does not display himself, and deforming of the matter is the inner local reversible one: the irreversible character of such wave results only from the irreversibility of SHT. Such waves are the exclusive phenomenon in nature and technique applications and hardly have the big interest for the practice.
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The all said above in strict detailed account is contained in article
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"L.G.Philippenko. What we measure and how we interpret it" which is placed on author's site "Shock Heat Transference" at URL: <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a>
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</div></div></div>Sat, 24 Jul 2010 09:16:36 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko8595 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/8595#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/8595Genuine shock waves and adiabatic hypothesis
https://www.imechanica.org/node/7373
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76">research</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
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<strong>G</strong>enuine shock waves and adiabatic hypothesis.
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The author's account for the scientific working people about of his executed works
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Content:
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1. The adiabatic hypothesis.
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2. The genuine shock waves
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3. The practical utilization of the theory
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Part 1. The adiabatic hypothesis.
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Any natural phenomenon can be successfully used in the technics only then if the notions of scientists and engineers about this phenomenon - its theory - are adequate to it. In contemporary hydrodynamics for any shock waves (in any material, with any amplitudes, et seq.) is used a theory based on the system of Rankine - Hugoniot (R. - H.) equations, the energy conservation law in which is introduced by the Hugoniot equation
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e(p, V) - e0(p0, V0) = (1/2)(p + p0)(V0 - V) , (1)
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where e is the specific inner energy of the enough small particle of environment, p - the pressure, V - the specific volume; the badge "0" corresponds to the initial state of particle (p0, V0) //for the shock wave it is the state on X = Xs (t) + 0//, the absence of the badge - to the final state (p, V) //for shock wave it is the state on X = Xs (t), the coordinate of shock front//. Equation (1) is disappeared on the base of adiabatic hypothesis: it always (a priori) is supposed that the particle does not changes by the heat with its surroundings while it cross the shock front //see any monograph or text - book on the question//. Such the adiabatic hypothesis can be come true at the elastic deformations only (see lower); for the genuine shock waves - with the non elastic deformations of the matter - the use of adiabatic hypothesis, and well then of the equation (1), leads to the false results.
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For any natural processes the law on energy conservation have a form
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de = dQ + dw , (2)
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where dw - the modification of e by mechanical work, dQ - its modification by all others, non - mechanical influences on the particle (so called "heat flow"). In adiabatic processes dQ = 0. Then dw appears as the full differential and w - as the function of state: its alteration is conditioned only by quantities of (p0, V0) and (p, V) and does not depend by the way of passage among them. Such the behaviour of w leads to the linear dependence
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p = p0+B(V0-V), B=Const. (3)
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//see lower in this blog: "Three problems about of the shock waves for the curious students (hydrodynamics). The second problem"//. The adiabatic deformations are the elastic ones by definition: if any object - for example, the particle - returns to its initial state (on the any way of transition), its inner energy also returns to its initial quantity e0(p0, V0) independently from the quantity e(p(t), V(t)) in the course of the transition //because of here dw = de is the full differential!//. In a plane straight adiabatic wave of deformations with any continuous or even rupture profile the linear dependence (2) is the only physically justified dependence among p and V. The Hugoniot equation (1) is the integral from (2) with dQ = 0.
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Because of (3), the graph of the function p == f(V) , which leads from the resolving of (1), - so called the "Hugoniot adiabate" or the "shock adiabate" - is the straight line . The experimental researches confirm it: until the deformations are elastic, the p is the linear function from V independently from the profile of wave, - for instance, it is so at the rectangular profile. Naturally, it is so only until the Hugoniot equation itself conserve the physical sense, that is until dQ = 0.
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The all said above had been strict detailed in the article [1]:
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[1]. Л.Г.Филиппенко. Следствия из уравнения Гюгонио. Сб. «Гидромеханика», вып. 36, Киев, «Наукова думка», 1977г. (L.G.Philippenko. "The consequences from the Hugoniot equation". The English text of this article </p>
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<span>is placed on the author's<br />
site "Shock Heat Transference"at URL : <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a></span>
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).</p>
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Part 2. The genuine shock waves
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With a desire, the elastic (adiabatic) wave with a rectangular profile it is possible, of course, to name "the shock wave". For the practice, however, the genuine shock waves, in which the deformations of the matter on shock front are non elastic ones, are much more important and interesting. From the energy conservation law (2) it leads, that such the waves can be accomplished only if dQ not equals to nought. The integration of (2) from Xs to (Xs + 0) leads then to the shock curve equation
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e(p,V) - e0(p0, V0) = sQ(p, V, p0, V0) + (1/2)(p + p0)(V0 - V) (4)
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where sQ is the measure of the Shock Heat Transference (SHT) (or the "Shock Heat Exchange") - that is the specific quantity of heat by which the infinitesimal particle is in time to exchange with its surroundings when it cross shock rupture. The SHT is the physical phenomenon which earlier had not been described in a literature: discovery of this phenomenon was at first fixated in the article [1].
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The graph of the function p = f(V) , which is got from resolving (4), - that is the shock curve - is nonlinear one. Just the such graphs are received in experiments on shock waves with a not too small amplitudes; only general using (1), instead of the right equation for the non elastic deformations (4), so far by all users, leads to calling this experimental graphs as the shock (or Hugoniot) adiabat.
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The presence of SHT in the genuine - with the non elastic deformations - shock waves leads to the necessity of the radical revision of the thesises of its contemporary theory. In particular:
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a) In the any adiabatic wave the mass velocity at initial (in front) point of its profile equals to the sound velocity in the matter in front of wave, and no mechanical signal from the wave can outstrip the wave itself; the heat signals are absent in view of dQ = 0. Therefore the matter in front of wave remains not excited, so that p0 = p(X>>Xs), and just the same for V0, e0, et seq.; therefore this all do not depend from the amplitude of the wave. On this fact in contemporary (adiabatic!) theory (which none the less is applied to the non elastic shock waves!) are based such operations as:
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-- the graphic determination of the quantity of shock wave velocity;
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-- dividing of modification of the full energy of particle at shock front on the kinetic and inner parts.
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This operations are false if apply to the genuine - non elastic - shock waves. Here the presence of SHT leads to appearance the heat flow in front of wave, why the p0 already not equals to p(X>>Xs), but depend from it and from the amplitude of wave: p0 = f(p, p(X>>Xs)); just the same it is right for V, e, et seq. The point (p0, V0) now is not placed on the shock curve and above-mentioned operations are impossible.
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b) For a contemporary technics the researches of the energy equation of state e(p, V) and also the satisfying to it the dependence p from V, in the different materials at the over high pressures, are actual. This pressures are created in the strong shock waves. For resolve the putting problems the contemporary theory offers the simple way: experimentally is measured the dependence between of the mass velocities in front and behind of shock front, v0 and v, for which as the good approximation is found the linear bond
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v0 = a + bv ; "a" and "b" are Const. (5)
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The energy equation of state e = e(p, V) then obtain by resolve the R. - H. system in common with (5). But on the adiabatic shock wave (it describes by R. - H. system!) v0 = v(X>>Xs ) and does not depend from the amplitude of wave, and hence from v = vs //see above//; it means that (5) is not compatible with the Hugoniot equation (1).
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But that simple way is false also if apply to the non elastic waves: as it one can see from (4), because of presence of the term sQ, the term w(p, V, p0 , V0 ) in such waves equals to the sum (e - sQ) which present not any function of states; and for to obtain the dependence of p from V, it is necessary to resolve the equation (4) in common with (5), for what it is necessary to know the function sQ = f(p, V, p0 , V0 ).
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c) The possibility of existence of the shock waves of certain kind is determined by the second principle of thermodynamics. The most significant what can to offer the contemporary theory in that question - it is the known Zemplen theorem; from it, it is infered, in particular, that the stretching shock waves in majority materials are impossible in nature //see any text-book or monograph on that theme//. This inference is false //see lower in this blog: "Three problems about of the shock waves for the curious students (hydrodynamics). The third problem"//. The reason is simple: the Zemplen theorem is infered on the base of Hugoniot equation and, as such, is applicable only to reversible processes, how are the adiabatic - elastic - shock waves; but in the reversible processes the straight and reverse ways are equally possible. The genuine - non elastic - shock waves are nonreversible processes, and here the second principle of thermodynamics have the form:
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ds = de s + di s; de s = dQ/T , di s > 0 or di s = 0 (6)
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(s - the specific entropy); here de s - the change of entropy owing to non mechanical interaction with an outward bodies, di s - owing to inner processes in material. As it is clear from (6), this law does not difference between a stretching and pressing shock waves: only the di s have the importance. For instance, in a plain straight shock wave along axis X the integration of di s/dt gives
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T(delta)i s = Y(dv/dX)(deltaV) (7)
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where Y is the viscosity coefficient ( all parameters at X = Xs ). In a pressing shock waves with the increasing amplitudes (dv/dX)<0 (the back layers of matter runs over the shock front). In a stretching shock waves (dv/dX)>0, if the amplitudes increase (this layers runs away from the front the faster the further from the front it are found). Decreasing of the amplitude is accompanied with (dv/dX)>0 at pressing and (dv/dX)<0 at stretching shock wave on its rupture. At last, if the shock wave is stationary then also stationary will be motion behind its front , and (dv/dX) = 0. Thus the viscous share of (delta)i s depends not only from the sign of (deltaV) but also from the direction of change of the shock wave amplitude. When the amplitudes of shock waves (pressing or stretching - with indifference) increase, the contribution from viscosity in (delta)i s is positive one, so that such shock waves all are thermodynamics permissible. At the decreasing of the amplitude the right term of (7) <0 , also with indifference from the sign of (deltaV) : the existence of not adiabatic shock waves ( both pressing and stretching) at the decreasing of its amplitudes is impossible.
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The all essential characteristic peculiarities of non elastic shock waves had been strict detailed in the monograph [2]:
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[2] Л.Г.Филиппенко. Сильные ударные волны в сплошных телах. - Киев, УМК ВО, 1992г. После опубликования монография существенно дополнена и переработана автором. (L.G.Philippenko. Strong Shock Waves in the Continuous Bodies. - Kiev, UMK VO, 1992. After of the publication the monograph had been essentially completed and corrected by author).
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<p><span>In particular, in the monograph [2] the conception<span> </span>“</span><strong><span>active stretching shock waves” had been introduced in the mechanics of the continuous environment and had been analysed there. This idea have the serious practical consequences (see lower in this blog: </span></strong><strong><span><span> </span>“</span></strong><span>The sudden throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines “).</span></p>
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The said above in n0 (a) - (c) had been in detail analysed in [2] and, in a more brief account, in the article [3]: "The Shock Heat Transference", which had been sent to "International Journal on Shock Waves, Detonations and Explosions" at July 2007.
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[3] L.G.Philippenko."The Shock Heat Transference". Now this article is placed </p>
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<span> on the author's<br />
site "Shock Heat Transference"at URL : <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a></span>
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Part 3. The practical utilization of the theory
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As it is known, "It is not object more practical than a right theory". Some recommendations on this theme for the genuine (non elastic) shock waves was gave in monograph [2]. Here we note only on the next from that:
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a) Initiating of thermonuclear reaction by shock waves.
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b) The attempts of the transformation of individual chemical substances (as for example the graphite into the diamond).
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c) The problem of the struggle with the <strong>sudden throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines.</strong>
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<strong>This questions were briefly elucidated in this blog before //see the earlier blog posts lower//. Its account contains also in the article "</strong>Three technical problems for genuine shock waves" which had been sent to European Journal of Mechanics B / Fluids at July 2009 ; the text of this articles is contained in the hosting FilesAnywhere, above - mentioned in references [1] and [3].
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<p>
The brief survey of the principal peculiarities of genuine shock waves contains in the article "The genuine (non adiabatic) shock waves" which had been sent to Nature Physics at July 2009, which text also is contained in the FilesAnywhere, indicated in [1] and [3]; there also are contained the articles "The heat exchange with a shock deformed material" and "On the hypothesis about of the continuous structure"
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<p> The English text of author's articles on shock waves see also on site "Shock Heat Transference" at URL: </p>
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<span><a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a></span>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
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<p>
</p>
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</p>
</div></div></div>Thu, 14 Jan 2010 14:08:59 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko7373 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/7373#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/7373 Three problems about of the shock waves
https://www.imechanica.org/node/6675
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128">education</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
<p>
Three problems about of the shock waves
</p>
<p>
for the curious students
</p>
<p>
(hydrodynamics)
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
The third problem
</p>
<p>
!--break--
</p>
<p>
The fundamental conclusions for shock waves lead from the second principle of thermodynamics. In the yours text-books such condlusions are made on the base of Zemplen theorem:
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
s - s0 = - (1/12T0)(d2p/dV2)s(V - V0)3 (1)
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
where s is the specific entropy, T - temperature. The main conclusion from (1) is formulated so: so far as in the adiabatic processes (shock waves are described by Hugoniot equation!) (s - s0) must be not smaller from the nought , then the stretching shock waves are impossible.
</p>
<p>
Meanwhile you satisfy himself in "second problem" (the formula (2)) that if the energy conservation law on shock wave have the form of the Hugoniot equation, then the function p(V) must be the linear function: p=Const.V. Therefore in such waves d2p/dV2 equels to nought and from (1) it leads to s = s0 independently of the character of deforming - the compression or the stretching .
</p>
<p>
Why it is so?
</p>
<p>
</p>
</div></div></div>Sun, 23 Aug 2009 11:49:27 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko6675 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/6675#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/6675Three problems about of the shock waves. The second problem.
https://www.imechanica.org/node/6574
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128">education</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p>
<span> </span><span><span> </span></span><span>Three problems about of the shock waves </span><span><span> </span>for the curious students</span><span><span> </span><span> </span><span> </span>(hydrodynamics)</span><span><span> </span></span>
</p>
<p>
<span><span> </span>The second problem</span><span> </span><span><span> </span></span>
</p>
<p>
<span><span> <span>!-break-</span> </span></span>
</p>
<p>
<span><span> </span>For it was possible to make any mathematical operations with any physical parameter of the continuous matter, those must be of everywhere determined simple function on the coordinates and<span> </span>time. In the one – dimentional plain stationary runing wave along axis X all this functions are: e=e(X),<span> </span>p=p(X),<span> </span>V=V(X)<span> </span>, etc. If on the section<span> </span>[Xs(t), (Xs(t)+h)]<span> </span>the function<span> </span>V(X) is monotonous one and<span> </span>dV/dX does not equals to nought <span> </span>almost some points on this section, we can resolve the equation<span> </span>V=V(X) relatively<span> </span>X and obtain<span> </span>X=X(V); by substituting it in other formulas we will obtain<span> </span>e=e(V)<span> </span>,<span> </span>p=p(V)<span> </span>, etc. The energy conservation law for adiabatical processes in differential form is here</span><span><span> </span>de= - p(V)dV<span> </span>.<span> </span>(1)</span>
</p>
<p>
<span>For </span><span><span> </span><span> </span>p(V)=BV ,<span> B</span>=Const.<span> </span><span> </span><span> </span>(2) </span>
</p>
<p>
<span> </span><span>the integration (1) upon the section [Xs(t), (Xs(t)+h)] gives </span><span> </span><span><span> </span><span> </span><span> </span>e – e0 = (1/2)(p + p0)(V0 – V)<span> </span>(3)</span><span> </span>
</p>
<p>
<span>that is the Hugoniot equation; here<span> </span>V=V(Xs(t)),<span> </span>V0=V(Xs(t)+h), and as well for<span> </span>e and p <span> </span>. The result does not depend from the quantity of<span> </span>h<span> </span>and therefore is kept on the limit<span> </span>h=0: if shock wave is an adiabatic one, - and therefore the energy conservation law take form of the Hugoniot equation – then the<span> </span>p is a linear function of<span> </span>V. As it is easy to verify, any other physically justified form of function<span> </span>p(V) does not leads to (3) from (1). Meanwhile all experimentaly obtained with shock waves dependences of p from<span> </span>V<span> </span>in the conditions interesting for the techique are not linear. <span> </span></span><span>Why it is so?</span><span> </span><span> </span><span> </span>
</p>
</div></div></div>Sun, 02 Aug 2009 10:00:01 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko6574 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/6574#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/6574Three problems about of the shock waves
https://www.imechanica.org/node/6029
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/128">education</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
<p>
<strong>Three problems about of the shock waves </strong>
</p>
<p>
<strong> for the curious students</strong>
</p>
<p>
<strong> (hydrodynamics</strong>)
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong>The first problem</strong>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
As it informs in your text-books, for an ideal gas the Hugoniot equation has the form
</p>
<p>
p[(h+1)V-(h-1)V0]=p0[(h+1)V0-(h-1)V] , h=cp/cv ;
</p>
<p>
here p- the pressure, V- the specific volume, cp and cV - the specific heat capacities with constant p and V . Hence it follows
</p>
<p>
[(h-1)V0-(h+1)V](dp/dV)=[(h+1)p+(h-1)p0] (1)
</p>
<p>
As you know, the energy conserwation law is
</p>
<p>
de=dQ-pdV (2)
</p>
<p>
where e - the specific inner energy, dQ - the summary contribution in de from all nonmechanical influences (so called "the heat flow"). The Hugoniot equation bases on the idea about of adiabatic deforming in a shock wave:dQ=0 , and from (2):
</p>
<p>
de=-pdV (3)
</p>
<p>
For the function e(p,V) with any form, de=(de/dp)Vdp+(de/dV)pdV; the substitution it in (3) gives
</p>
<p>
(dp/dV)=-[p+(de/dV)]/(de/dp) ;
</p>
<p>
for an ideal gas it will be
</p>
<p>
(dp/dV)=-hp/V (4)
</p>
<p>
As you see, the formula (1) turns into (4) only at p=p0 and V=V0: in an ideal gas the shock waves can be described by Hugoniot equation only if its amplitudes near to nought.
</p>
<p>
Why it is so?
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
</div></div></div>Mon, 13 Jul 2009 13:39:02 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko6029 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/6029#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/6029 The sudden throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines
https://www.imechanica.org/node/5452
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76">research</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong> </strong><strong>The sudden throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines</strong><strong> </strong>
</p>
<ul><li>- <strong>the natural manifestation of the active shock waves of stretching</strong></li>
</ul><p>
</p>
<p>
The exploitation of minerals is the vital necessity for any civilized complicities. It never ceased, in spite of the complicated and often tragic circumstances. It maybe, the most serious from those are the difficult predictable in a perspective and sudden in each privat case throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines: besides of material wastes, for those it had to pay by great enough blood. By empirical - on the base of numerous observations during of two last centuries - it was worked the methods for weakening of this phenomenon (sometimes even its prevention), or even though done in good time its prophecy; often the such semiempirical finds was found successful. Nevertheless, well-founded and thinked struggle with this threatening phenomenon require of elucidation of its natural essence and detailed mechanism of its rise.
</p>
<p>
The attentive analysis testifys: the throw of rock (and gas) is the direct result of action in the vicinity of mine coal-face of the active shock wave of stretching, which is initiated by the technological process of mining (and sometimes by natural causes). Behind of shock front of this wave, in direction, opposite to its motion, the rock (together with its filler) is thrown aside with a velocity exceeding the velocity of stress wave in the deformed (as a rule, broken) material: this torrent of the gas - rock mixture represent the material essentiality of the phenimenon of throw. Therefore, for to loosen a throw phenomenons and to exclude the possibility of its rise it is necessary to create such conditions at which the appearance and development of the active shock waves of stretching is difficult or excluded; of course, the such actions must no prevent the process of mining.
</p>
<p>
The clearly formulated notion about of the active shock waves of stretching and principled its ground had been introduced in mechanics in the monograph: L.G.Philippenko, "Strong Shock Waves in the Continuous Bodies", which had been published on Russian at 1992 year (Kiev, Ukraine). Detailed investigation of the properties of such waves and theirs role in formation of sudden throws of rock, coal and gas in the mines had been carried uot by author at 2006 - 2008 years and had been included in the text of monograph in the process of its supplementing and completing. On this base there had been indicated the recommendations for struggle with this phenomenon in the industrial conditions.
</p>
<p>
<strong> </strong>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong> </strong>
</p>
<p>
</p>
</div></div></div>Wed, 13 May 2009 08:39:29 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko5452 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/5452#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/5452The letter to curious reader
https://www.imechanica.org/node/4774
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76">research</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-8 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3124">thermonuclear energy</a></div><div class="field-item odd"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3125">shock waves</a></div><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3422">shock heat transference</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
The letter to curious reader
</p>
<p>
(URL: <a href="node/4755">node/4755</a> )
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
Dear Curious reader!
</p>
<p>
Of course, the specialists on hydromechanics - scientists, engineers - read a Web-journal of the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences of Harvard University. You are surprising why they keep silent. Let us think together. <!--break--!>
</p>
<p>
A remarkable physical phenomenon - the shock waves - already long ago had entered in the number of the broadly used in a technics the powerful tools of an industrial production: it is explosive breaking off of minerals, building reservoirs and canals, cutting metallic constructions (in particular, submarine), strengthening of machine details on a surface, welding by explosion, and many other; the considerable efforts had been made to resolving the problems of produsing synthetic materials and initiating thermonuclear reaction by shock waves.
</p>
<p>
Here is very important circumstamce: as elaboration of technology of any industrial production or physical experiment as comprehending theirs results, are carried out by proceeding from the accessible for the elaborators at present the notions about of physical essence of the process - that is from theirs contemporary theory of that physical phenomenon. When a theory is not satisfactory, it leads to the false results.
</p>
<p>
A thermonuclear reaction is practically the inexhaustible source of the energy. To make it accessible for industrial utilization - it signifies to resolve one from the most actual problems of the present. Only in USA and USSR (at a later date - Russia) for the last half of century on the search of its resolve already had been expended many decades billions dollars.
</p>
<p>
Using for that the shock waves is on principle the most simple way to resolve of this problem (in the hydrogen bomb it is realized practically). For the industrial utilization the problem reduce to a decrease ( on many orders) of the scale of process. One would think, there must not be the obstacles for it. But here, the experimenters struggle with that problem already decades of the years, but it is no clear of the desirable results.
</p>
<p>
And then "from the gloom of an uncertainty" came a "voice":
</p>
<p>
"<strong>Respectables! You struggle on the empty place! You plan yours investigations and grasp the meaning of its results by proceed from the notions which have not the direct attitude to the real investigated process. The real process which you attempt to realize is undivided from the special physical phenomenon - the shock heat transference (or "shock heat exchange"), which had been discovered yet many years ago, but which you all unanimously ignore. You don't realize the conditions in which that phenomenon is carried out, - and as a result of that, in yours experiments are realizing not the shock waves, upon the "work" of which you reckon (in a conditions of majority yours experiments the existence of shock waves is forbided by the second principle of thermodynamics), but only the ordinary continuous waves, the effect from which is quite another</strong>".
</p>
<p>
What have to do here the principal personages of this drama? So many years of trouble and labour; so many forces and means had been expended - and now...?
</p>
<p>
Exit - as simple as genial - was found: "That was not! Any "voices" were not; any new discoveries were not! All is quielty, calmly and as before. It must only keep silent, do not respond on any unwarranted innovations. And, of course, - at the first turn! - do not accept any "voices" to the widely read authoritative journals with a solid reputation. And if even such "voice" will burst open on some web-forum, - never mind! We will have patience and will keep silent; it may be, after a time it all will calm down".
</p>
<p>
It is very efficient politics, isn't it? Exactly such situation also forms in the problem about a ways of obtaining the synthetic diamonds, and some another questions of the practical using the shock waves.
</p>
<p>
But more threatening is there that. Already many years into the students (the future engineers) heads drum the notions which are contradicting to both - as to the first as to the second - principles of thermodynamics. In fact, they are crippled. What for?
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
Sincerely L. G. Philippenko
</p>
<p>
10.02.2009
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
P.S.
</p>
<p>
The strict proofs of the statements expressed by "voice" had been quoted in the article "The Shock Heat Transference", which had been offered by author to the web-journal " Journal on Shock Waves (An International Journal on Shock Waves, Detonations and Explosions) " in the middle of 2007 year. The publisher's memorandum of this journal was: "....Mission: To promote international and interdisciplinary collaboration in all areas of shock wave research...; .... To promote shock wave research in all its forms; ...To encourage publication in an appropriate journal and promote it as the principal journal for communication of shock wave researchs...". And here soon already will be two years as author can not receive any answer on his requests about of the destiny of his paper; the answer on request about of possibility to publish a preprint of this article on author's blog in iMechanica also was not received.
</p>
<p>
The discovery of the shock heat transference had been fixated in the author's article in 1977 year in Ukraine's journal. The English text of this article: "The consequences from the Hugoniot equation" was placed on the author's site "<a href="http://www.geocities.com/thermonucl_react_by_shock_wave/techie.html"">www.geocities.com/thermonucl_react_by_shock_wave/techie.html"</a> in 2006 yaer in the hosting "Yahoo! GeoSities". Jist now that site had been finished. Now this article is placed </p>
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<span> on the author's<br />
site "Shock Heat Transference"at URL : <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a></span>
</p>
<p>. In 1992 year in Ukraine had been published the author's monograph: L.G.Philippenko."Strong Shock Waves in the Continuous Bodies", in which the many theoretical and applied problems of the real - with the shock heat transference - shock waves had been stated with the full and strict proofs (after of the publication the monograph had essentially been complited and corrected by author ). </p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
L. G. Ph.
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
</div></div></div>Tue, 10 Feb 2009 10:06:45 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko4774 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/4774#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/4774 About: why we have not synthetic diamonds
https://www.imechanica.org/node/4583
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76">research</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-8 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3125">shock waves</a></div><div class="field-item odd"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3266">synthetic diamonds</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p> </p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong> About: why we have not synthetic diamonds.</strong>
</p>
<p>
For to turn graphite into diamond by shock waves it had been undertaked the great enough efforts and expenses in USA and USSR during some last decades. Sometimes the diamonds had been coming, but always in the form of fine-dyspersated powder only. The reason was in a wrong of technology. The right technology is possible only by registration a special physical phenomenon - the <strong>Shock Heat Transference </strong>- which for the first time had been discovered in the work "The consequenses from the Hugoniot equation"; English text of this article </p>
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<p class="MsoNormal">
<span>is placed on the author's<br />
site "Shock Heat Transference"at URL : <a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html">http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</a></span>
</p>
<p>. The base theory for the right technology is contained in the monograph "Л.Г.Филиппенко. Сильные ударные волны в сплошных телах. Киев, УМК ВО, 1992"<br />
(L.G.Philippenko. Strong Shock Waves in the Continuous Bodies. After of the<br />
publication the monograph had been essentially completed and corrected by<br />
author), and in a brief account in article: L.G.Philippenko, "The Shock Heat Transference", which had been sent in Journal on Shock Waves (An International Journal on Shock Waves, Detonations and Explosions) in the middle of 2007 year. </p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
</p>
</div></div></div>Fri, 02 Jan 2009 11:23:22 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko4583 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/4583#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/4583Thermonuclear energy by shock waves
https://www.imechanica.org/node/4393
<div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-6 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/76">research</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-taxonomy-vocabulary-8 field-type-taxonomy-term-reference field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3124">thermonuclear energy</a></div><div class="field-item odd"><a href="/taxonomy/term/3125">shock waves</a></div></div></div><div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p>
<strong><br /></strong>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong> </strong><strong>The reasons of the failure of initiative </strong>
</p>
<p>
<strong> the thermonuclear reaction by shock waves</strong>
</p>
<p>
</p>
<p>
<strong> </strong><strong>1.The failure.</strong>
</p>
<p>
The first thermonuclear reaction had been realized a half century ago - in the hydrogenous bomb. It had been initiated just by the explosive wave because of explosion the "atomic fuse" from dividing material. For industrial using of this scheme the power of explosion must be diminished in a million times; the "atomic fuse" was not suitable for it. It was needed to search the way to form a system of the shock waves securing on a small thermonuclear charge the temperatures the same as it is in a bomb.
</p>
<p>
!--break--
</p>
<p>
The experimental searches on the solution of this problem are lasting decades. For their realization was attracted the leading scientists - specialists in this field; was attracted the powerful collectives of excellent engineers; the expenditures are formed the billions dollars. Was attempted the lots of the wonderful by resourceful (and by wit) experimental schemes of the process. But the visible results are absent.
</p>
<p>
From that it follows the inevitable conclusion: there are guilty not the experimenters, - the cause lies not in any defects of planning or carrying out of the investigations; the cause lies more deeply.
</p>
<p>
<strong>2. The reasons.</strong>
</p>
<p>
Any experiment is planed by proceed from ideas about of the investigation phenomena which have to be investigated - from the accessible for the experimenters theory of this phenomena. From the point of view of this theory also is executed a meaning of the results of that experiment. Just therefore in first turn it is necessary to control the adequacy of the using theory of investigation phenomena, in this case - the contemporary hydrodynamics theory of shock waves.
</p>
<p><span>The strict detailed analysis of the real conditions of existence of the genuine shock waves is contained in the author’s monograph “L.G.Philippenko. Strong Shock Waves in the Continuous Bodies”, see reference [2] in t<span>he author's account for the scientific working people about of his executed works “ <strong><span>G</span></strong>enuine shock waves and adiabatic hypothesis” above, in the beginning of this blog.</span></span> <span>In the monograph also is contained the series of practical recommendations .</span> </p>
<p>
It was ascertained: there are two reasons of the failure of the project:
</p>
<p>
a) The mistaken contemporary in general use theory.
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The theory of shock waves in general use - as it is given in the text - books, studied in the universities, etc., - which is based on the hypothesis about of the adiabatic character of shock deformations ( in this theory the basis equation of energy is the Hugoniot equation) keeps the physical sense only in the limits of the elastic deformations: if the deformations in a wave are not elastic, such wave is being accompanied by specific phenomenon - the Shock Heat Transference (or "Shock Heat Exchange") , the particular natural phenomenon, discovered by author (this discovery was fixated in the article: Л.Г.Филиппенко. Следствия из уравнения Гюгонио. Сб. «Гидромеханика», вып. 36, Киев, «Наукова думка», 1977г. English text , L.G.Philippenko. "The consequences from the Hugoniot equation", see in FilesAnywhere). Such wave is, therefore, not adiabatic one, the Hugoniot equation is not valid on it, and the theory which had based on this equation is able to lead only to a false conclusions. But just not elastic - with the Shock Heat Transference - are that strong shock waves which are used in all experiments upon the initiative of thermonuclear reaction, - meanwhile they always are considered (both under planning and under comprehending of its results) from point of view not adequate for them adiabatic theory. The groundless suppositions and false conclusions in such case are inevitable.
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b) The unfit tool of the investigation.
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The elastic deformation is reversible: the adiabatic theory, which is adequate for it, leads to a false conclusions when applies to not elastic - and therefore not reversible - processes. Here is necessary to use the general thermodynamics theory. The successive using of the second principle of thermodynamics to strong shock waves (Chapter V of the monograph) shows: in the conditions in which were conducted most of experiments the principal instrument of the exercise influence over the material - the shock waves - indeed had not been realized: theirs appearance at that conditions are not permitted by the second principle of thermodynamics. Instead of them there had been realized the ordinary continuous waves. But influence on the material of continuous waves - independently from the steepness of its front - essentially differs from the influence of shock waves.
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The indicating circumstances forms, on the present time, the principal reasons of the failure of initiative the thermonuclear reaction by shock waves.
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<p><span>The series author’s articles on shock waves problems see on site “Shock Heat Transference” at URL:<span> </span></span><span><a href="http://www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html"><span>www.leonid-philippenko.narod.ru/index.html</span></a></span><span></span> </p>
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e-mail: <a href="mailto:philippenkolg26@yandex.ru">philippenkolg26@yandex.ru</a>
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</div></div></div>Fri, 28 Nov 2008 12:25:57 +0000Leonid G. Philippenko4393 at https://www.imechanica.orghttps://www.imechanica.org/node/4393#commentshttps://www.imechanica.org/crss/node/4393