爆炸力学的发展史

Ying Li's picture

爆炸力学是力学的一个分支,它主要研究爆炸的发生和发展规律,以及爆炸的力学效应的利用和防护的学科。它从力学角度研究化学爆炸、核爆炸、电爆炸、粒子束爆炸(也称辐射爆炸)、高速碰撞等能量突然释放或急剧转化的过程,以及由此产生的强冲击波(又称激波)、高速流动、大变形和破坏、抛掷等效应。自然界的雷电、地震、火山爆发、陨石碰撞、星体爆发等现象也可用爆炸力学方法来研究。

  爆炸力学是流体力学、固体力学和物理学、化学之间的一门交叉学科,在武器研制、交通运输和水利建设、矿藏开发、机械加工、安全生产等方面有广泛的应用。

爆炸力学的形成和发展

  中国在八世纪的中唐时期,已有火药的原始配方。在十世纪的宋代初期,开始以火药制作火箭火炮,用于军事。17世纪明代的宋应星已经明确指出:火药可按配方不同用于“直击”(发射)或“爆击”(爆炸),并且说明火药爆炸时“虚空静气受冲击而开”,科学地描述了爆炸在空气中形成冲击波的现象。

  大约在14世纪,火药传入欧洲,首先在军事上得到广泛应用。17世纪匈牙利开始有火药用于开矿的记载。19世纪中叶开始,欧美各国大力发展铁路建设和采矿事业,大量使用黑火药,工程师们总结出工程爆破药量计算的许多经验公式。1846年硝化甘油发明后,瑞典化学家诺贝尔制成几种安全混合炸药,并在1865年发明雷管引爆猛炸药,实现了威力巨大的高速爆轰,从此开创了炸药应用的新时代,并且促进了冲击波(即激波)和爆轰波的理论研究。

  英国工程师兰金和法国炮兵军官许贡纽研究了冲击波的性质,后者又完整地解决了冲击载荷下杆中弹性波传播问题。查普曼和儒盖各自独立地创立了平稳自持爆轰理论,后者还写出第一本爆炸力学著作《炸药的力学》。

  第二次世界大战期间,爆炸的力学效应问题由于战事的需要引起许多著名科学家的重视。泰勒研究了炸药作用下弹壳的变形和飞散,并首先用不可压缩流体模型,研究锥形罩空心药柱形成的金属射流及其对装甲的侵彻作用。泰勒、卡门、拉赫马图林各自独立创建了塑性波理论,发展了测定冲击载荷下材料的力学性能的方法。

  泽利多维奇和诺伊曼研究了爆轰波的内部结构,使爆轰理论得到巨大的进展。朗道和斯坦纽科维奇等研究了爆轰产物的状态方程,并推进了非定常气体动力学的发展。科克伍德等建立了水下爆炸波的传播理论。

  原子武器的研制大大促进了凝聚态炸药爆轰、固体中的激波和高压状态方程以及强爆炸理论的研究。泰勒、诺伊曼和谢多夫各自建立了点源强爆炸的自模拟理论,以麦奎因为代表的美国科学家对固体材料在高压下的物理力学性能作了系统的研究。经过这一时期的工作,爆炸力学作为一门具有自己特点的学科终于形成。

战后,核武器和常规武器的效应及其防护措施的研究继续有所发展;在爆破工程中研究出多种新型的控制爆破技术;出现了利用爆炸进行材料成型、焊接、硬化、合成的爆炸加工技术。

  同这些新技术发展相适应,爆炸力学也就发展成为包括有爆轰学、冲击波理论、应力波理论、材料动力学、空中爆炸和水中爆炸力学、高速碰撞动力学(包括穿甲力学、终点弹道学)、粒子束高能量密度动力学、爆破工程力学、爆炸工艺力学、爆炸结构动力学、瞬态力学测量技术等分支学科和研究领域的体系了。
爆炸力学的内容和特点

  爆炸力学的一个基本特点是研究高功率密度的能量转化过程,大量能量通过高速的波动来传递,历时特短,强度特大。其次,爆炸力学中的研究,常需要考虑力学因素和化学物理因素的耦合、流体特性和固体特性的耦合、载荷和介质的耦合等,因此,多学科的渗透和结合成为爆炸力学发展的必要条件。

  爆炸研究促进了流体和固体介质中冲击波理论、流体弹塑性理论、粘塑性固体动力学的发展。爆炸在固体中产生的高应变率、大变形、高压和热效应等推动了凝聚态物质高压状态方程、非线性本构关系、动态断裂理论和热塑不稳定性理论的研究。爆炸的瞬变过程的研究则推动了各种快速采样的实验技术,其中包括高速摄影、脉冲x射线照相、瞬态波形记录和数据处理技术的发展。爆炸力学还促进了二维、三维、具有各种分界面的非定常计算力学的发展。

  爆炸现象十分复杂,并不要求对所有因素都进行精确的描述,因此抓住主要矛盾进行实验和建立简化模型,特别是运用和发展各种相似律或模型律,具有重要意义。

  爆炸波在介质中的传播以及波所引起的介质的流动变形、破坏和抛掷现象是爆炸力学研究的中心内容。爆炸包括空中爆炸、水下爆炸、地下爆炸和高速碰撞等。对于空中核爆炸,须考虑在高温、高压条件下包括辐射在内的空气热力学平衡性质和非平衡性质。

  对于水下爆炸,水的高速空化及其消失往往是重要的因素。对于地下爆炸和高速碰撞,则须考虑在高温、高压、高应变率条件下,介质的本构关系和破坏准则。这些都属于介质的基本力学性质。因此,在这些极端条件下,介质的力学性质是爆炸力学和其他学科共同感兴趣、合作研究的领域。

爆轰的流体力学理论是波在可反应介质中当化学反应和力学因素强烈耦合时的流体力学理论。气相、液相,固相、混合相物质的稳态和非稳态爆轰、爆燃和爆轰间的转化、起爆机理和爆轰波结构等都是爆轰学研究的对象。

  此外,还有与工程应用直接相联系的工程爆破理论和技术,如爆炸加工的理论和工艺,抗核爆炸防护工程中结构动力学和岩土动力学问题,同常规武器设计相联系的内弹道学与终点弹道学。

  爆炸力学在军事科学技术中起重要作用。在发展核武器、进行核试验、研究核爆炸防护措施方面,爆炸力学是重要工具。在各种常规武器弹药的研制、防御方面,炸药爆轰理论、应力波传播理论和材料的动态特性理论等都是理论基础。

激光武器和粒子束武器也需要从爆炸力学的角度进行研制,爆炸力学研究还为航天工程提供多种轻便可*的控制装置。爆炸力学实验技术(如冲击波高压技术)为冲击载荷下材料的力学性能的研究提供了方法和工具。

  在矿业、水利和交通运输工程中,用炸药爆破岩石(爆破工程)是必不可少的传统方法。现在光面爆破、预裂爆破技术的应用日益广泛。在城市改造、国土整治中,控制爆破技术更是十分重要。爆炸在机械加工方面也有广泛的应用,如爆炸成型、爆炸焊接、爆炸合成金刚石、爆炸硬化等。

  爆炸防护在工业安全方面有特殊重要的地位。井下瓦斯爆炸、天然气爆炸、粉尘爆炸(例如铝粉、煤粉、粮食粉末等),煤井中的瓦斯和二氧化碳突出等都是生产上十分关心的问题。对于上述问题,爆炸力学的任务是探明现象,查清机理,提供工程方法。


Amit Pandey's picture

can you write in english

can you please write in English

its just a request

Thanks


Ying Li's picture

Sorry:(

Dear Amit,

I am not a good English writer and there are so many technical terms here. Thank you for your concern. Maybe I will try it.

Lee


Zhigang Suo's picture

Google Translate

I just pasted Ying Lee's Chinese text into Google Translate. Before I blinked my eyes, here is the result. It might be a useful starting point for human editing.

Explosive mechanics history

Explosive mechanics is a branch of mechanics, the main explosion occurred and the rule of development, and the mechanical effect of the explosion in the use and protection of the subjects. From the mechanical perspective chemical explosions, nuclear explosions, electricity explosion, the explosion particle beam (also known as radiation explosions), such as high-speed collision sudden release of energy or dramatic transformation process, and the resulting strong shock wave (or shock). high-speed mobile, large deformation and damage to toss such effect. Natural lightning, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, meteorite collisions, the exploding stars is also available explosion mechanics research. Explosive mechanics of fluid dynamics, and solid mechanics and physics, chemistry between a cross disciplines, in weapons development, transportation and water conservancy projects, mineral development, machining, safety and production are widely used. Explosive mechanics formation and development of China in the 8th century during the Tang Dynasty, has been the original formula of gunpowder. 10 in the early Song Dynasty century to begin production of gunpowder artillery rockets for the military. 17th Century Ming Sing Song should have categorically stated : gunpowder can be different formula for the "Live" (launch), or "explosion Blows" (explosion), indicate gunpowder explosion "Vain static gas affected and more." scientific description of the explosion in the air to form shock wave phenomenon. About the 14th century, gunpowder into Europe, the military has been extensively applied. Hungary started the 17th century gunpowder for mining records. The mid-19th century, European and American countries, vigorously develop the railway construction and mining industry, the extensive use of black gunpowder, Engineers concluded blasting dose calculation formula of many experiences. 1846 invention of nitroglycerin, Sweden Nobel chemists made several security mixed explosives and the 1865 invention detonator to set off the explosives Meng, a powerful realization of the high-speed detonation, Since then use explosives to create a new era, and to promote a shock (shock) and the detonation wave theoretical research. British engineer Portland reserves France artillery officer Xu gangway study of the nature of the shock, the latter is a complete solution to the bar under impact loading elastic wave propagation problems. Chapman and Confucianism to build independent and self-restraint to create a stable detonation theory, The latter also wrote the first book of the explosive mechanics "of explosives mechanics." During World War II, the explosive effect of the mechanical problem as the needs of the war caused many reputable scientists attention. Taylor of explosives under the shell deformation and dispersion, and it is the first use incompressible fluid model, Research grain hollow conical shield formed metal jets and armor penetration to the role. Taylor, Carmen, Rakhmatulin create a separate plastic wave theory, development of the materials under impact loading the mechanical properties of the method. Zeldovich and 1973-1976 detonation wave of the internal structure, so that the detonation theory tremendous progress. Long Road and Stanyukovich study of the detonation products equation of state, and promote the non-steady gas dynamics of development. Kekewude such as the establishment of the underwater explosion wave propagation theory. Development of atomic weapons greatly promoted the condensed explosives detonation. The solid state and high-pressure shock wave equation and the strong theoretical study of the explosion. Taylor, 1973-1976 and Sedov built a strong point explosion from the simulation theory, McQueen as a representative of the American scientists of solid materials under high pressure in the physical and mechanical properties has been studied. After this period, exploded as a mechanics with their own characteristics of the subjects has been formed. After the war, nuclear and conventional weapons and the effects of protective measures continued to develop; Blasting the project developed a variety of new control blasting technology; there for the use of explosive materials forming, welding, hardening, Synthesis of the explosion processing technology. With the development of new technologies such as to the development of explosive mechanics will be included detonation study, shock wave theory, Stress wave theory, material dynamics, aerial bombings and underwater explosive mechanics, high-speed collision dynamics (including armored mechanics, terminal ballistics), beam dynamics of high energy density, blasting mechanics, the explosion of mechanics, structural dynamics explosion, Transient mechanical measurement technology and research branches of the system. Explosion mechanical characteristics of the content and the explosion of a basic mechanical characteristics of high power density of the energy conversion process, plenty of energy through to the volatility of high-speed transmission, which lasted weaknesses, strength serious. Secondly, the explosion mechanics research, and often need to consider mechanical factors physical and chemical factors coupling, fluid properties and characteristics of solid coupling, load and the coupling medium, and so multidisciplinary infiltration and combined explosive mechanics necessary for development. Research for the explosion of fluid and solid medium shock theory, fluid plasticity theory, viscoplastic solid dynamics of development. Solid explosion in the high strain rate, large deformation, high pressure and heat effect of condensed material to promote high-pressure equation of state, nonlinear constitutive relations Dynamic fracture theory and thermoplastic instability theory research. Transient explosion of the research is to promote the rapid sampling of the various experimental techniques, including high-speed photography, Pulse x photography, the transient waveform recording and data processing technology development. ray Mechanics also promoted the explosion of 2D and 3D interface with the various non-steady development of computational mechanics. Explosion complexity of the phenomenon, does not require all the factors right accurate description, So seize the main experiments and the establishment of simplified model, in particular the use and development of similar laws or model law, is of great significance. Explosion wave in the medium-wave transmission and medium caused by the movement of deformation, destruction and toss phenomenon is the explosive mechanics research center. Explosion including aerial bombings, underwater explosions, underground explosions and other high-speed collision. Air nuclear explosions, to be considered in the heat, high pressure conditions including radiation, air thermodynamic equilibrium and non-equilibrium nature of nature. For underwater explosions, high-speed water and air and its disappearance is often an important factor. For underground explosion, and high-speed collisions, we have to consider in high temperature, high pressure, high strain rate conditions. Media constitutive relations and damage criteria. These media are the basic mechanical properties. Therefore, in these extreme conditions, the dielectric properties of the explosion mechanics and other subjects of common interest. cooperation in the field of study. The detonation wave theory of fluid mechanics in the reaction medium when the chemical reaction and mechanical factors of the strong coupling theory of fluid mechanics. Gas, liquid, solid-phase, mixed-phase material steady or unsteady detonation, deflagration and detonation of transformation Initiation of detonation mechanism and the structure of detonation is the study of the object. In addition, with the application directly linked to the blasting theories and technologies, such as the explosion theory and processing technology, Anti-nuclear explosion protection engineering structural dynamics and rock dynamics, with conventional weapons design associated with ballistics and terminal ballistics. Explosive mechanics in the military science and technology play an important role. In the development of nuclear weapons, nuclear testing, nuclear explosions study protective measures, the explosive mechanics are important tools. In all conventional weapons and munitions research and development, defense, explosives detonation theory, stress wave propagation theory and the dynamic characteristics of theories are theories. Laser and particle beam weapons and weapons from the explosion also needs the perspective of mechanical development, Explosion mechanics research for aerospace engineering may provide a wide range of portable devices * control. Explosive mechanics experimental techniques (such as high-pressure shock wave technology) under impact loading the mechanical properties of the method and Tools. In the mining, water and transport projects, with the blasting of rock (blasting) is essential to the traditional method. Now smooth blasting, presplit blasting technology has been widely used. In urban transformation, land improvement, controlled blasting technology is very important. Explosion in mechanical processing and has wide applications, such as forming an explosion, explosion welding, explosion synthetic diamond, hardening of the explosion. Explosion protection in industrial safety aspects of special importance. Underground gas explosion, gas explosions, dust explosions (such as aluminum, coal, grain powder, etc.) coalmines of gas and carbon dioxide production are prominent on the subject of concern. In view of the above, explosive mechanics is proved, identify mechanism to provide engineering approach.


Amit Pandey's picture

AMIT PANDEYDepartment of

AMIT PANDEY
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD- 21250, USA
Voice: (410) - 455-8141 (Lab)
(401)- 455-6899 (Office)
FAX: (410) - 455-1052
e-mail: amitpandey1979@gmail.


Amit Pandey's picture

Thanks Dr Suo Amit 

Thanks Dr Suo

Amit 


Henry Tan's picture

Modern explosion science and engineering

Dear Ying,

A nice review of explosion mechanics. 

Modern explosion science and engineering, which I am exploring, has much more than that.

It involves many catastrophic and complex behaviors in nature, and much broader applications.


Henry Tan's picture

linked to my blog: